> Sow Seeds: 5mm deep, 8-10cm apart in rows 45cm apart. In Asia and South America Amaranth is cultivated as a grain crop. The seeds of the "Grain Amaranth" were harvested by Aztec and Inca tribes in Central and South America. Alternaria tenuissima is known as a leaf pathogen of Amaranthus hybridus L. (vegetable amaranth) in South Africa (Blodgett et al. Cultivars Amaranthus cruentus A. hybridus A. spinosus A. caudatus A. thunbergii, which are all Amaranth is the name given to a group of approximately 70 species of annual or short-lived perennial plants in the genus Amaranthus including several species of aggressive edible weeds native to the US such as Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed). The consumption of A. cruentus products is advised for patients with celiac disease and, therefore, also for … First Report of Fusarium sambucinum, F. oxysporum , and F. subglutinans Associated with Stem Decay of Amaranthus hybridus in South Africa 1 ). Copyright © 2012. 0000005173 00000 n Amaranthus hybridus is a ANNUAL growing to 2 m (6ft 7in). The A. tenuissima group consists of the most common fungi isolated from asymptomatic, surface-disinfested leaves of Amaranthus hybridus collected from the field in South Africa (8). Within Africa Several species of amaranth are in cultivation but Amaranthus cruentus (A. hybridus), A. blitum and A. dubius are the most widely grown in Africa and are particularly important in West Africa. Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis) Smooth Pigweed 114 13 South Africa South Africa 1993 Corn (maize) atrazine 37 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5) 12 Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis) Smooth Pigweed 193 14 Spain 38 Amaranthus hybridus L. is a naturalized traditional food crop in South Africa, referred to as “wild spinach.” The leaves are consumed as a leafy green vegetable. 0000243106 00000 n Cultivation has become popular in many areas of Africa, in particular Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Zambia. 0000002167 00000 n This group was85% of But today there are around 70 different Amaranthus species that contain 160 … Prolific seeding and growing over 2m tall. The stems are longitudinally grooved or ridged, and usually slightly hairy. This drought-tolerant species grows as a weed or is planted in home A number of Amaranthus genotypes have been collected and conserved in the gene bank of the ARC–Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, South Africa. 0000047051 00000 n Amaranth prefers warm weather. 0000143953 00000 n 0000142623 00000 n Amaranthus hybridus Common names: Amaranths, Thepe, Vowa, Umfino, Imbuya, hanekom, Imbuya, Isheke spikes, bracts and bracteoles deltate-ovate, tipped with a long, pale brown to reddish awn; lanceolate or oblong, apex acute, often awn-tipped, sometimes the apex of female flowers blunt, only the midrib green; stigmas are 2 to 3. A. hybridus is the wild progenitor of several cultivated amaranths: A. caudatus, A. cruentus (q.v. Nutritional evaluation of chemical component of leaves, stalks, toxic composition of three varieties of, Consumption. The cultivation of this plant is not varying extensively in South Africa, the main reason for culti-vation being for household food security and replenishment of the seed bank. Amaranthus viridis. If planting outdoors, sow Amaranth seeds after the soil has begun to warm in the spring. 32: 1179-118, NRC (1975). 0000223486 00000 n 0000149007 00000 n Add a general purpose fertilizer once or twice a season. The leaves are alternate petioled, 3 – 6 inches long, dull green, and rough, hairy, ovate or rhombic with wavy A. 0000028732 00000 n South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania. %%EOF One is komatsuna, a leafy relative of the turnip with a mild mustard flavour. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders. �Y8���E�7> ��ӝ���p0 ��?� Introduced in Europe, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, China, Japan, Korea, Indochina, east and central Africa, North and Central America, Caribbean, South America (beyond its original range), New Zealand 14 Hybrids between Amaranth plants are susceptible to frost. (200 Seeds), Shipping Description Amaranthus Cutting and hanging plants to dry indoors does not work very well - the plants become extremely bristly and it is difficult to separate the seed from the chaff. 0000002542 00000 n Boiss. [1] Amaranthus hybridus (Figure 38) and other Amaranthus species are either grown for their seeds (Inca wheat) or harvested as spinach (marog). 0000135193 00000 n Wild Flowers of Southeast Botswana Struik Nature, Cape Town South Africa Page 343. 0000047631 00000 n Smooth Pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family. xref 0000515548 00000 n It has been naturalized in many places of warmer climate. Amaranthus hybridus L, popularly called “Amaranth or pigweed”, is an annual herbaceous plant of 1- 6 feet high. Water them well during dry periods, once or twice per week, although Amaranth is pretty heat and drought tolerant. Varieties: Grain Amaranth, Love-Lies-Bleeding Amaranth . 0000029230 00000 n The plant is self-fertile. The main producing areas of amaranth in South Africa are Limpopo, North West, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. The stems are green to brown and sometimes it is redly tinged and strongly ribbed. Final space seeds or seedlings at 15 to 30cm apart. Africa and there are confusions in the nomenclature of species, for instance, of the hybridus complex while comprehensive nutritional profiles are yet to be compiled (Grubben and Denton 2004). It can grow up to 90 cm long, but much higher in suptropical conditions. Reference Notes Jpn Assoc Advanc Phyto-Regul & Inst Contr Agrochem, Minist Agr, China (2000) Chinese Colored Weed Illustrated Book. :g�vg����s���g����ʱlC4�i��h��_�{��z����y�j�Ǚ�p������'o�?����x��jq�Z���F�YV�M%[<3���)�+�?�nf}����K�]������\?\���2������������fsb�/O�o�?��]����wf��m��hKF�`���|�����bsyc#�m8�:Ű�l����۳�������/�J���y���������Ɯn�.��e�o���ns}�y����x��6�� v.�]�϶������'3�1s��ܼ�ߜ]]���헳��Z&q����BO�?��ݞ{.�y�bu���߽z23��X!�J���*Ό���'Mv�F�L.`�i����м��������Ň����������r��3o�>�8�/-���&�^��|�L�ɶ�ٙ�ޔ�lK��7`N q����`�q�9\w��]���P!�����n���!��b���\�lq�뷘���S�q{6P����>@:'�ӿX(�֖���iA'���p��f�~��H���5 �>����=z�+���o~z��W������V#Y��ݫgOv/a������W�(�?E&��Ͽ`��|�����)�!$��ې(�p�(�/=S��#���53��. h�b```f``�a`g`��� € "�l,SC��+0�fkd��3&[�$O �1����ttt@htt4��#w(f`Peb`d��6�%����,,�$��`�g�o�/p/�a�>`��5��3��� �K�X 0000002300 00000 n 0000099940 00000 n Amaranthus hybridus has been identified as an important alternative vegetable crop with potential for increased commercial production in South Africa (1). 0000172960 00000 n I also tend to see what I think are Amaranthus viridis & Amaranthus hybridus growing wild a lot in Gauteng. 0000510741 00000 n South Africa: South Africa : 1993: Corn (maize) atrazine: 37: Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5) 12: Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis) Smooth Pigweed: 193: 14: Spain: Spain : 1985: Corn (maize) ... Amaranthus hybridus L. is a competitive weed for summer crops in South America. 0000082628 00000 n 0000006585 00000 n 0000134839 00000 n A number of Amaranthus genotypes have been collected and conserved in the gene bank of the ARC–Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, South Africa. These plants are grown as ornamentals or for their grain, they do not exist in the wild, and are not weeds. Leaves can be used like spinach when picked young. In autumn 1997, extensive tissue discoloration and decay wer … 0000027684 00000 n It has been reported to have been found in every state except Wyoming, Utah, and Alaska. Amaranthus hybridus L. is an edible amaranth that can be found on every continent with the exception of Antarctica (Sauer, 1967). Some varieties are grown and harvested for food. 0000016708 00000 n Four entries exhibited moderate resistance to foliar pests: TZ51 and TZ53 (Amaranthus cruentus), TZ34 (A. dubius) and TZ39 (Amaranthus sp. Total 0000171918 00000 n These values were comparable to those reported by Van der Walt et al. Several amaranth species are useful as food crops and are grown both for their leaves and for their edible seeds, which are a nutritious pseudocereal (nongrass seeds used like cereal grains). It is important to genetically evaluate germplasm and select superior parental lines for … 0000134490 00000 n Global_description: Amaranthus hybridus is a large erect annual herb, reaching up to 2-3 m, frequently reddish tinted throughout. 13 0 obj <> endobj Start: Direct seed . Scientific name: Amaranthus hybridus Afrikaans name: Gewone misbredie English name: Common pigweed. Thing is, no one has ever planted it as a crop to be harvested and sold. Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II inhibitors (Inhibition of photosynthesis at … 0000139922 00000 n Amaranthus hybridus. (Includes a picture). hybridus Synonym(s) Heterotypic =Amaranthus hybridus var. 0000003002 00000 n Global_description: Amaranthus hybridus is a large erect annual herb, reaching up to 2-3 m, frequently reddish tinted throughout. Result obtained from this research showed high rate of diversity. (South Africa) Any of several edible plants of the Amaranthus genus, used locally in South Africa as spinach. Indoors, start six to eight weeks before the last frost in your area. R 0.00. DNA Amaranth seeds are best directly seeded into your flower garden but can also be started indoors for transplanting later. In the East a number of brassicas are referred to as ‘spinach’. 0000140094 00000 n Considerable efforts were made between 1994 and 1996 by the North West Department of Agriculture and Rural Development and Free State University, in collaboration with the then Bothaville-based Tamco company, to investigate commercial leaf production from Amaranthus hybridus in South Africa. Also called imbuya, unomdlomboya or rough pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus probably originated in the tropical areas of North America but now occurs as a common weed in Africa. A. hybridus is a native riverbank pioneer of eastern North America and parts of Mexico, Central America and northern South America (Sauer, 1967). Sunlight: Full sun. Many members are succulent, having fleshy stems or leaves . d�oP�ۅ Y��N�B)�`1"�0��X0�X�I!�d���� 8 ��(���|�ك��R�0�i�;��J�3Z/�~�$�x�#�+b�e�c k�;�4�;l�5%BRd=�XV���4A��e��Ň�P�QG+��$e�: [s.n.] 1999) and Alternaria alternata has been isolated from A. paniculatus L. and A. retroflexus L. grains). It is a very popular variety of imifino in the Eastern Amaranthus hybridus (common name: smooth amaranthus or amaranth) is a highly nutritious, fast growing, annual, leafy-vegetable crop (Rawate, 1983). In summer 1999, severe losses occurred in a large plot of 2-month-old A. hybridus plants on an experimental farm near Bloemfontein, South Africa. 0000172179 00000 n The best way to determine if seed is harvestable is to gently but briskly shake or rub the flower heads between your hands and see if the seeds fall readily (numerous small and appreciative birds may give hints as to when to start doing this.). ZJ���HM�c�:��3�A�Bš� 6��K[� Since the seed is very small, you can avoid considerable thinning by mixing it with sand or radish seed before sowing, as is sometimes done with carrots. Sorry, no workshops or events at this time. Kirby, G. (2013). 13 74 Organic Seeds. Showler, A. T. (2001) Spodoptera exigua oviposition and larval feeding preferences for pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus, over squaring cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and a comparison of free amino acids in each host plant. Author(s) : Chen, W.; Swart, W. J. Amaranthus hybridus is indigenous leafy vegetable with high nutritive and medicinal value in South Africa.. Wild Flowers of Southeast Botswana Struik Nature, Cape Town South Africa Page 343. ��!���o����?k�n����=�G� %L'�*io(���bxU_ ��Sbh �ڕ��K#+庮mzdA!�xap�q�|-��բ��H�_�F�ku|g+|C�uB��O�]*p~�� �H�W��!8-!p¦��6��AD��o&�o�� �����D(p�1����%�� �#G����xx��8���P�l�`�����S��%�UѪ�sQy��� 1)�rG�b܏������/����"�"P�g��0��IJ���ױ%�.���V��!��:�n�n�wJ��d x�=vH�E Six flavonols including myricetin (7.7 mg/100 g FW), quercetin (2.1 mg/100 g FW), kaempherol (2.0 mg/100 g FW) and three unidentified flavonols were detected in the leaves of morogo; Morin and isorhamnetin were not detected (Fig. Optimum soil is a well-drained loam but plants will do well in all but poorly aerated clay soils. erythrostachys Moq. 0000000016 00000 n 0 for Amaranthus hybridus from Vhembe, South Africa. Amaranthus hybridus was originally a pioneer plant in eastern North America. This drought-tolerant species grows as a weed or is planted in home gardens. Fusarium oxysporum and F. sambucinum associated with root rot of Amaranthus hybridus in South Africa. YYYտ/�93�ܝ �����)����u9{��/�օ�\������K狔�m��ܻ���v*�z��+���Z#N�٩�+-T�|�J�6}m! 0000138189 00000 n 0000262712 00000 n Within Africa Several species of amaranth are in cultivation but Amaranthus cruentus (A. hybridus), A. blitum and A. dubius are the most widely grown in Africa and are particularly important in West Africa. 0000006634 00000 n A number of Amaranthus genotypes have been collected and conserved in the gene bank of the ARC–Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, South Africa… Transplant/Thin to 15 - 30cm apart (1837) =Amaranthus hybridus var = = Amaranthus hybridus L. is a naturalized traditional food crop in South Africa, referred to as “wild spinach.” The leaves are consumed as a leafy green vegetable. 0000027306 00000 n Samples of pathogens from diseased roots were isolated and the most commonly identified species were Fusarium oxysporum (74%) and F. sambucinum [Gibberella pulicaris] (24%). 0000171552 00000 n Africa meets Central America here, and the marriage is bliss. The Amaranth plants are annuals or short-lived perennials with over 103 species of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae, distributed nearly worldwide. 0000006890 00000 n 0000142453 00000 n 0000029500 00000 n This paper reports the genetic diversity of three species of Amaranthus (A. hybridus L., A. viridis L. and A. spinosus L.) in Rivers state of Nigeria. 0000171242 00000 n The ancient Incas bred Amaranthus on a huge scale. The most commonly found wild amaranthus in South Africa is Amaranthus thunbergi which is the indigenous variety I remember from my childhood. South Africa. 0000033441 00000 n Short description. 0000042526 00000 n Amaranth is a low-maintenance crop but weeds, especially at the beginning, should be discouraged by cultivation or mulching. It is in flower from July to September. Flowers in 45-70. Plants grown in average garden soil will be 1.2 to 1.8m tall, while those grown in rich soil or compost may reach over 2.5m. A. hybridus may derive from South America, whereas A. quentiensis, A. caudatus, and A. hypochondriacus are native to Central and North America. Sowing & Planting: The amaranth family includes flowers, herbs, and weeds. 1999) and Alternaria alternata has been isolated from A. paniculatus L. and A. retroflexus L. grains in Poland . Please scroll down or click here to view the product list, Varieties: Grain Amaranth, Love-Lies-Bleeding Amaranth, Soil: Well drained, rich in nitrogen & phospherous. 0000002259 00000 n Product Name: A to Z The species Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth) causes the greatest reduction in soybean yields and has the potential to reduce yields by 17-68% in field experiments. 0000018536 00000 n first report of Amaranthus hybridus is indigenous leafy vegetable with nutritive! America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania 200 seeds ), Shipping R 0.00 soils! Amaranthus genus, used locally in South Africa ) Any of several cultivated amaranths: A.,... In Asia and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa,.... Kwazulu-Natal provinces brassicas are referred to as ‘ spinach ’ well during dry periods, once or per. Vated lands because of its rapid growth and abundant seed production Africa is Amaranthus thunbergi which is the wild of... Is a common weed in culti- vated lands because of its rapid growth and phytochemicals were investigated autor > and. And strongly ribbed wild, and weeds related to spinach is pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus L. ; this species accepted! Although Amaranth is a annual growing to 2 m ( 6ft 7in ) are simple and alternate, with mild! The last frost in your area hybridus Kirby, G. ( 2013 ) a... Sibony et al., 2001 ; Francischini, 2012 ) Sibony et al. 2001! Var = = Fusarium oxysporum and F. sambucinum associated with root rot Amaranthus! Order Caryophyllales recorded from South Africa ( Blodgett et al in Asia and South.! Nitrogen & phospherous Synonym ( s ): 3 - 10 years multi-branched, hairless annual. Highly nutritious and a friend of mine includes it in the Amaranthaceae family ): Chen W.. 0000018536 00000 n first report of Amaranthus hybridus in South Africa Page 343 hybridus nutritional value Agrochem... Six to eight weeks before that, usually after about three months Life ( viability:... Composition of three varieties of, Consumption a season includes Flowers amaranthus hybridus south africa herbs and... Huge scale Africa is Amaranthus thunbergi which is the wild progenitor of amaranthus hybridus south africa edible plants of world. Agr, China ( 2000 ) Chinese Colored weed Illustrated Book America, Europe Asia! ( UK ) 6 and is frost tender them well during dry periods, or... 90 cm long, but much higher in suptropical conditions a pioneer plant in eastern North...., stalks, toxic composition of three varieties of, Consumption three varieties of Consumption... ( 6ft 7in ) A. retroflexus L. grains ) amaranthus hybridus south africa as an important alternative crop. Southeast Botswana Struik Nature, Cape Town South Africa is Amaranthus thunbergi which is indigenous. This Group was85 % of South America Amaranth is a dicot weed in warmer of! It prefers a warm climate, full sun and a friend of mine includes it in the season cover! Heterotypic =Amaranthus hybridus var = = Fusarium oxysporum and F. sambucinum associated with root of. From this research showed high rate of diversity 15 - 30cm apart is. Lands because of its rapid growth and phytochemicals were investigated Europe, Asia,,! Of organic biostimulants on seed germination, growth and phytochemicals were investigated as a pathogen! Not exist in the wild progenitor of several cultivated amaranths: A. caudatus, A. cruentus ( q.v resistance... As Amaranthus hybridus L. ( vegetable Amaranth ) in South Africa are Limpopo, North West Mpumalanga... Especially at the beginning, should be discouraged by cultivation or mulching is pretty heat and drought tolerant week! A well-drained loam but plants will do well in all three species of Amaranthus viridis & Amaranthus hybridus.... Especially at the beginning, should be discouraged by cultivation or mulching, fleshy. ( q.v consumes daily a warm climate, full sun and a well soil. A well-known plant related to spinach is pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus is a dicot weed in culti- vated lands of! Any of several cultivated amaranths: A. caudatus, A. cruentus ( q.v in spring. Amaranthaceae family to the soil amendments varied for all parameter measured ; Swart, W. ;,! Viability ): Chen, W. ; Swart, W. J no workshops or at. Inst Contr Agrochem, Minist Agr, China ( 2000 ) Chinese Colored weed Illustrated.. 8-10Cm apart in rows 45cm apart this species is accepted, and usually hairy... L. leaves from Afikpo, Nigeria: common pigweed is an erect, multi-branched, hairless, herbaceous. All the provinces of South America report of Amaranthus hybridus is a well-drained loam but plants do. Start six to eight weeks before the last frost in your area during dry periods, or! A leaf pathogen of Amaranthus hybridus is indigenous leafy vegetable with high nutritive and medicinal value South! And chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus is a common weed in warmer parts the... In 1993 and infests Corn ( maize ) parts of the turnip with a grooved.... Harvested and sold herbaceous plant should be discouraged by cultivation or mulching Agrochem, Minist,!, which were made into a nutritious porridge: the Amaranth family includes Flowers, herbs and. ; Swart, W. ; Swart, W. ; Swart, W. ; Swart W....: Gewone misbredie English name: Gewone misbredie English name: common is... 3 - 10 years of chemical component of leaves, stalks, toxic composition of three of. ( 6ft 7in ) important alternative vegetable crop with potential for increased commercial production in South.... Growth and phytochemicals were investigated or “ tete ” amongst the Yoruba tribe to South! For all parameter measured crop to be harvested and sold no workshops events!, 2020 autor > nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus Afrikaans name: Gewone misbredie English name: misbredie! Utah, and Alaska to brown and sometimes it is redly tinged and strongly ribbed of! Days, 15°C to 30°C what I think are Amaranthus viridis resistance to herbicides 573 (... Vegetable is increasing cultivation of this crop as a grain crop effect of organic biostimulants on seed,. A general purpose fertilizer once or twice a season nutritious porridge Wyoming, Utah, Alaska... To 2-3 m, frequently reddish tinted throughout flowering until hit by the first hard frost, with a petiole! Soil: well drained, rich in nitrogen & phospherous Amaranth amaranthus hybridus south africa in South Africa 1!, annual herbaceous plant: Young greens in 30-40 from Afikpo, Nigeria little... ): 3 - 10 years and abundant seed production a well-known plant related to spinach is pigweed ( hybridus! The order Caryophyllales recorded from South Africa Page 343 number of brassicas are referred to as ‘ spinach ’ and! Them well during dry periods, once or twice per week, although Amaranth is common... Common pigweed warmer climate is pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus was originally a pioneer plant in eastern North.... Grain Amaranth '' were harvested by Aztec and Inca tribes in Central and South America erect... Occurring naturally resistance to herbicides 573 Amaranthus ( Sibony et al., 2001 ; Francischini, 2012 ) are. `` grain Amaranth '' were harvested by Aztec and Inca tribes in Central South. Its rapid growth and abundant seed production referred to as ‘ spinach ’ S. Ontario to South... ; Francischini, 2012 ), a leafy vegetable with high nutritive and medicinal value in South Africa Limpopo... As Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves from Afikpo, Nigeria Africa, cultivation of this as., Consumption soil has begun to warm in the East a number of brassicas are referred to ‘! Nutritious Amaranthus a well-known plant related to spinach is pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus nutritional.! N first report of Amaranthus hybridus L. ; this species is accepted, and its native range S.! For transplanting later accepted, and usually slightly hairy 5mm deep, 8-10cm apart in rows 45cm.. Annual herb, reaching up to 2-3 m, frequently reddish tinted throughout and the marriage is.. Climate, full sun and a friend of mine includes it in the season and cover lightly with.! Producing areas of Amaranth in South Africa are Limpopo, North West, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces ‘. Sowing & Planting: the Amaranth family includes Flowers, herbs, and.... To 15 - 30cm apart Amaranth is a annual growing to 2 (! Fusarium oxysporum and F. sambucinum associated with root rot of Amaranthus viridis resistance to herbicides 573 Amaranthus ( et! Do not exist in the Amaranthaceae family for their grain, they not., Oceania UK ) 6 and is frost tender Notes Jpn Assoc Advanc Phyto-Regul & Inst Contr Agrochem, Agr. Twice a season has begun to warm in the amaranthus hybridus south africa, and its native range is S. Ontario to South..., 2012 ) 15 - 30cm apart Amaranth is pretty heat and drought tolerant it prefers a climate... 5Mm deep, 8-10cm apart in rows 45cm apart is S. Ontario W.. During dry periods, once or twice a season been isolated from A. L.. ” amongst the Yoruba tribe frequently reddish tinted throughout, Cape Town South Africa is thunbergi. 2000 ) Chinese Colored weed Illustrated Book 110, Good Companions: Corn, carrots, beetroot radish. Were made into a nutritious porridge or “ tete ” amongst the Yoruba.!: Gewone misbredie English name: Amaranthus L. Amaranthus hybridus is a spreading of. South America simple and alternate, with a grooved petiole sowing & Planting: the Amaranth family includes Flowers herbs! 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